Thursday, October 11, 2012

Beating the FDCI's Broad Immunity in Foreclosure Cases

As mentioned in a previous article, it can be very difficult for homeowners facing foreclosure to raise certain claims in court when the bank holding their loan has failed and been taken over by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Case law and federal statute give the FDIC broad immunity against a number of claims that could be raised by borrowers in regards to loans held by the failed institution.

However, there are also a number of exemptions to the broad immunity the FDIC enjoys. Four of them are significant and worth examining here, as homeowners in foreclosure may be able to use them to bring claims against the FDIC or successor financial institutions.

The first is called fraud in the factum, and refers to any case when one party to a transaction reasonably relies on a misrepresentation by another party. The misrepresentation will be as to the character or essential terms of the contract. Examples include alteration of a document or forgery. The FDIC nor its successor institutions are immune to claims of fraud in the factum, so homeowners may be able to bring these issues into court.

Second, Truth in Lending rescission claims are still allowed despite the FDIC's immunity protection. In fact, the Truth in Lending Act states that a borrower's rescission rights continue regardless of assignment of the loan or to whom the loan is assigned. This means that, even if the lender fails and the note is taken over by the government, rescission may still be an option if the other requirements under the statute are met. FDIC receivership of the bank's assets will not affect the claim.

Also, the FDIC does not have immunity protection from any transaction that is void. The federal statute granting FDIC immunity is intended to protect the government's interests in assets is acquires from the failed banks. A void transaction, though, does not create an interest in an asset, and the immunity protection can not be extended to assets in which the FDIC has no valid interest. In cases such as fraud in the factum, the transaction may be declared void, for instance.

Finally, there is a rule called the FTC Holder Rule that was designed to protect credit consumers from holder-in-due-course immunity, such as the FDIC has been granted. For this rule to apply, though, an FTC Holder Notice must be included in the consumer credit contract. It will be included in many transactions relating to a sales transaction. This might be a home improvement contract or other similar agreement. If the notice is included in the contract, the FDIC's immunity may not apply.

While the above defenses to broad FDIC immunity have survived most course, other claims have survived in a smaller number of cases. These include such issues as breach of contract, failure of consideration, challenges to the validity of a lien, homestead issues, unreasonable foreclosure sale, and state statutes regarding Unfair and Deceptive Acts and Practices. Homeowners should do their own legal research to determine if their claims may survive, or consult with a competent foreclosure attorney.

When homeowners find that they have become a mortgage customer of the government, falling into foreclosure can become extremely complicated. While the FDIC has taken some steps to assist borrowers in stopping foreclosure, the agency is granted broad immunity from many claims that may have been used to defend against the loss of the home in the first place. Thus, borrowers should educate themselves in regard to the issues surrounding the FDIC's administration of mortgage loans and foreclosure.

Saturday, October 6, 2012

Teacher Interview Tips: How To Pass Your Teacher Job Interview

Applying for a teaching job opening will not be as easy as a breeze if you are not armed with effective teacher interview tips. If you want to ace your teacher job interview, follow the techniques discussed in this article.
Attending an interview for that teaching job opening you desire can be nerve wracking. You also have to make a good impression to increase your chances of acing that teacher job interview. Below are several teacher interview tips that you should be aware of prior to attending an interview:

1. Preparation is a must.

Among good interview techniques that can be applied not only to teaching applications, but to any type of job application is to be prepared. If you're applying as a teacher, you have to make sure that you have all your requirements e.g. certifications, sample lesson plans, among others. Of course, you should also have with you your resume or curriculum vitae, a character reference sheet from your previous employer, and so on. It is also best that you are prepared enough to do a teaching demo when you're asked to do so.

2. See to it that you have basic information about the school you're applying to.

One of the teacher interview tips that you should always utilize is for you to do your research and learn about the actual school or university. You should also have knowledge on the different school programs, courses, and activities of that specific institution that has a teaching job opening. Oftentimes, interviewers may ask you one or two questions about what you know about their universities, and if you are able to answer accurately, you'll have added points in your teacher job interview.

3. Dress professionally for the interview.

Part of good interview techniques is also for the applicant to utilize power dressing. When you dress professionally, you'll definitely make a good impression. You have to ensure too that you look respectable. Thus, among teacher interview tips is for you to avoid wearing a skirt that's too short, a top that's haltered, or too body-hugging, and the likes. Having a tattoo and other piercings aside from your pair of ear piercings is also a huge no-no.

4. Have some practice a few days before your interview.

Another technique on how you can be hired for a teaching job opening is for you to think of basic interview questions and practice how you answer them. It is a good idea for you to look at the mirror and observe your body language and facial expression while you're answering those teacher job interview questions.

If you find yourself frowning while answering, remind yourself that you have to look pleasant and smile sincerely from time to time while answering questions. It is also suggested that you practice the interview with your sibling, or your friend, and, ask your 'interview buddy' to give any feedback or criticisms he or she may have. Of course, you have to improve on any weak areas prior to the interview.

Practicing for interviews is one of the truly essential teacher interview tips that can make you more confident and help you give great answers when interviewed.

5. Answer questions with tact, the right grammar, appropriate tone, etc.

If you want to land that teaching job opening, you also have to choose your words carefully whenever you answer. You should also have the right grammar and pronunciation. You'll become the students' role model, after all, and having proper pronunciation and grammar when speaking or teaching is important. Your tone should not be condescending as well. Instead, it should be calm and pleasant.

Following teacher interview tips and good interview techniques will up your chances of being hired as a teacher.

Thursday, October 4, 2012

How To Prepare For The Investment Banking Interview

It seems that the investment banking industry has narrowly escaped Armaggedon and the survivors are waiving the bonus flags again. Intern classes are getting bigger and Business Week reported that Goldman Sachs has reclaimed the top spot as the most popular employer among elite MBA students again. If you are a career switcher and one among many MBA applicants dreaming of joining Goldman Sachs or another bulge bracket investment bank for the summer internship, this article is for you. Below we provide an overview of an investment banking interview and explain why it's important to prepare in advance. This is especially true if you are a career switcher.

There are several types of questions which you are likely to be asked in your interview. They include career questions, educational questions, competency questions, fit questions, technical questions and industry questions.

While it's difficult to predict which questions exactly you will be asked, there are four questions which will appear in any investment banking interview:
- The WMTYR (Walk me through your resume)
- The 3 Why's (Why investment banking? Why our bank? Why (should we hire) you?

The answer to the first and the second questions may be quite similar to those you provided in your MBA admission interviews. Answer to the third question is a little bit more complicated and will require specific preparation.

The usual reason for interest in any specific investment bank include: (a) a strong platform, which means strong coverage teams, diverse offering of advisory and financial products, many interesting deals and opportunities to learn (b) a strong presence in specific markets or industries (c) and the most important, tons of wonderful and smart people with whom you talked with during your recruiting process and whom you really made a connection with. Networking is a critical component for your interview preparation but we will discuss this area in one of our
future postings.

Why (should we hire) you? To answer this question you need to reiterate your main strengths, interest in a specific bank and a great fit you feel for the bank you are interviewing with.
You should prepare for this question especially well as a bank's approach to this question will usually be that a person who cannot sell himself cannot sell the bank's products and banking is definitely a sales job.

Good to know Other challenging fit questions examining your understanding of the
investment banking can be:
- What does an investment banker actually do?
- What is the role of an associate in the investment banking?
The answer to the first question will usually go in the following way:
An investment bank serves as intermediaries between their clients
who need capital in the form of debt and equity
It provides strategic advisory services by structuring transactions
that meet clients needs and objectives
Overall, Investment bank works with companies on the transactions
that will enhance their value. This may include accessing capital
markets to find growth or expand operations, as well as investing in another
company through merger or acquisition. Banks are not only the
matchmaker between parties involved in a transaction, but also the primary
architects of the deal.

A typical answer to the question about the role of an associate will
go like this :
Analyzing industry and company data related to the transaction
Building excel models to valuate companies
Joining strategic meetings
Performing due diligence meetings with the clients
Creating, editing client presentations
Monitoring, paying close attention to documentation associated with
the deal (prospectus, internal memos)
Managing relationship with an analyst
The most important attributes that an associate should have are:
quantitative skills, the ability to learn quickly, discipline, a strong work ethic, the ability to
work in teams, detail orientation and dependability.

While answering competency and behavioral questions you should be structured and succinct. Banks like well organized and structured thinking and will quickly dismiss candidates who ramble or cannot distinguish important points from the less important ones. We recommend creating 3 bullet points for each of your answers and putting them on the paper in advance. Practice your answers with friends and be sure that your story is consistent and flows well before the interview.

The technical part

The technical part of the interview will test your familiarity with the accounting and financial terms. This will definitely require thorough preparation even if you study at one of the top MBA programs . First of all you will need to be familiar with the financial statements and their analysis. The profit and loss statement, the balance sheet and cash flow statements are all fair game in the interview.
Secondly, you will need to have a basic understanding of the company's valuation methods. You should be very familiar with terms such as cost of capital, cash flow discounting, multiples, accretion and dilution, LBO, CAPM, WACC and Beta.

You also may be asked how M&A and IPOs work and even be given a case study on a business situation. It is strongly recommended that you start b-school having at least a basic understanding of accounting and finance.

Here are some books that can help you.
VAULT Guide to Finance Interviews by D. Bhatawedekhar, Dan Jacobson,
and the Vault Staff
Vault Career Guide to Investment Banking by Tom Lott, Derek Loosvelt
and the Staff of Vault
Heard on the Street by Timothy Falcon Crack.
Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies by Tom
Copeland, et al, John Wiley & Sons Inc
Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies
by McKinsey and Company
Financial Modeling, 3rd Edition (Hardcover), Simon Benninga

In the industry part of the interview the interviewers will test your understanding of the industry and your professional interests.
You will be asked about financial news and trends, current articles related to investment banking, discussions of the economic environment and economic trends, trends in M&A and definitely about specific deals.

To be prepared for this part of the interview it's advisable to start reading financial and economic newspapers and journals. The Wall Street Journal, FT and Economist are good sources to gain relevant knowledge.

A couple of additional hints:
- Know recent interesting deals executed by banks with which you are interviewing.
- Talk about deals with passion the interviewers will test not only your level of knowledge but also your passion for IB
- And finally, always read the news in the morning before your interview

Some additional books to better understand investment banking before your interview include:
The Business of Investment Banking: A Comprehensive Overview , by K.
Thomas Liaw
Blue Blood and Mutiny: The Fight for the Soul of Morgan Stanley , by
Patricia Beard
The Last Tycoons: The Secret History of Lazard Frres & Co. , by
William Cohan
The Accidental Investment Banker: Inside the Decade that Transformed
Wall Street , By Jonathan Knee
More entertaining books include:
Barbarians at the Gate , By Bryan Burrough and John Helyar.
Bombardiers , By Po Bronson
Monkey Business: Swinging through the Wall Street Jungle, By John
Rolfe and Peter Troob.
Liars Poker: Rising Through the Wreckage on Wall Street , By Michael
Lewis, Norton Books.

Good luck with your interview!

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Best Singapore Banks And Their Services.

Singapore is the best commerical hub and a placed to offer private banking to those of high personal wealth.As one of the world's largest foreign exchange centers, Singapore offers a natural home to Bank.In every Singapore bank displays all the characteristics which contribute to its continued economic success.

Banks provide numerous financial and personal services.All the retail banking services are available such as credit and debit facilities, mortgages and loans. Beside this they also provide services on estate planning, whereby the value of an individual's estate can be maximized. Income tax advice and other personal tax matters are a part of the financial service provision and securities and assets investments will be a significant factor too. Other services include trustee services, credit and trade finance letters, foreign exchange, fund management, electronic and wire funds transfer, and corporate administration.

List of Banks in Singapore:

Bank of India - Singapore
Provide services in Trade Finance, Loans and Syndications, Forex Covers, Options, Placement of Deposits in major currencies, Twin currency deposit scheme, Remittances and a host of other Banking Products.

OCBC bank Singapore
OCBC bank in Singapore was formed in the year 1932. Three banks merged to form OCBC bank-the Chinese Commercial Bank Limited, the Ho Hong Bank Limited and the Oversea-Chinese Bank Limited.Today they has an asset of 0 billion and operations are conducted in fourteen different countries and territories. OCBC is one of the leading financial services groups in Singapore.

ABN AMRO Singapore
ABN AMRO opened its first Asian office in Jakarta in 1826 to finance business ventures in the Dutch East Indies.They have a clear focus on consumer and commercial clients in local markets and focus globally on financial institutions.

Association of Banks in Singapore (ABS)

It is a non-profit industry body which promotes and represents the interests of the banking community in Singapore. They works closely with the Monetary Authority of Singapore and other government and non-government agencies to support their respective roles in developing and upholding a sound financial system in Singapore.

Other banks in singapore

Barclays Bank PLC
23 Church Street, (S)049481
Landmark Category : Bank
District : Raffles Place

Barclays Capital
60B Orchard Road, (S)238891
Landmark Category : Bank
District : Dhoby Ghaut

Citibank Great World City Investment Center
1 Kim Seng Promenade, (S)237994
Landmark Category : Bank
District : River Valley

Deutsche Bank
991 Alexandra Road, (S)119964
Landmark Category : Bank
District : Telok Blangah

EFG Bank Building
25 North Bridge Road, (S)179104
Landmark Category : Bank
District : City Hall

Saturday, September 22, 2012

Which Is Best An 120Vac Or Central Vacuum for New and Remodeled Houses?

There are items to take into consideration when one is considering purchasing a central vacuum system. One of the deliberations is whether to purchase a system requiring 120 volt power or a system requiring 220 Vac. The actuality is we need to narrow the arena even further. For example there is a 220 Vac system and 240 Vac system . So it is meaningful to know what you are requiring of your local central vacuum contractor.

Motor Differences Between 110 and 220 Variations

The motors are not the same in the 220 and 110 variations of central vacuum systems. The power units are wound differently, the transformer is different, the mini-breakers are different, and the cord and wiring are different. As you can see it is important to specify with your contractor precisely which motor you want.

Differences Between 110/120 And 220/240 Vac

Now and then 120 volts is referred to as 110 volts or 115 volts. Also, 240 volts is referred to as 220 volts or 230 volts. Central vacuum manufacturers assemble motors in all those ranges. The superior choices are the 120 and 240 volt power units, not the 110 or 220 volt units.

The 120 and 240 motors will not be negatively affected if utilized with lower voltages. The 120 volt motor will be fine on 110 volts. And a 240 volt motor will be alright on 220 or 230 volts. The other way around will adversely affect the motors. A 220 volt motor would be "damaged" if utilized for extended amounts of time on a 240 volt circuit. And the same can be said for a 110 volt operating on 120 volts. The bulky voltage operate very well in any variation of 50-60Hz.

Which is Best?

The reply to that question depends on the manufacturer. As an example, MD Manufacturing reveals these facts about their production units. For the most part, their power units have very similar performance numbers between the voltages. Their 120 volt Silent Master S5, for instance has 139 water lift and 191 CFM with a high of 905 Air Watts. The 240 volt version has 136.4 water lift and 190 CFM with a high of 866 Air Watts. These stats are extremely close.

Operating Cost

The cost to operate a 240 volt vacuum unit can conceivably be less than its 120 volt counterpart because legs of the electrical power are being used concurrently. However, the 120 volt version may not be wasting much power if the opposite circuit is being used by lights or other appliances simultaneously. In the worst case scenario, the 120 volt version may cost 12 cents per hour extra to operate. Yes, there is a divergence here, but one must add-up several other considerations.

Cost Of The Electrician

As you presumedly know electricians demand a set fee for each 110-120 dulex they install. Normally it is dictated by a flat fee of around to per outlet depending on the area in which one lives. Wiring in a 220-240 duplex requires tying both 110Vac electrical legs together and special NEPA® plugs. Apparently wiring your central vacuum system for 220-240 Vac will incur added expense. Far more 120 volt power units are sold considering they simply plug into any 20 amp electrical outlets and have lots of vacuuming power.

Power Unit Life Expectancy

They feel that the 120 volt versions of the vacuum power unit will last longer. They have a higher amount of copper and thus the heat has a greater ability to disperse. In addition, 120 volt motors are also much easier to find replacements for as they are popular motors in the industry. The 240 volt version motors are not used very often and vacuum shops aross America do not ordinarily stock them. They would almost always stock 120 volt power units.

Plugged Into The Incorrect Outlet?

What takes place when a 240 volt power unit is mistakenly plugged into 110 and 110 into 240? If you plug a 120 volt power unit into a 240 volt circuit and immediately turn the unit on it will run with a humongous amount of suction. The unit will be running very fast! If it is running very long the motor may disintegrate. The transformer will likely burn out before that occurs. When the transformer burns out the power unit will shut down. If one simply replaces the transformer the system will be restored back to normal operation.

If you departed the house without testing the vacuum and later found that the new vacuum did not work, then it is probable the electrical contractor powered it up with 240 volts. Just staying in the off position the power unit will burn out the transformer in 3-5 minutes or less.

Plugging a 240 Volt Power Unit Into 120 Circuit

If you plug a 240 volt power unit into a 120 volt outlet, it will not run properly. The great news is that neither the transformer nor the power unit will be demolished. It will only be running at half speed.

Plan of Action

I would like to offer my many years of experience as a Security / Low-Voltage Contractor and hand you a very acceptable plan of action. If you install the system yourself you will save lots of money. To install your own central vacuum you will first need to know exactly what components are required. What are the top two or three models to consider? Where is the best place to procure your pipe? What type of cabling needs to be pulled in the walls of your home? You are going to need a manual to lead you through the process.

Installing Multiple Systems

It's been my experience that when home owners are considering one system for their new or remodeled home, they are likely contemplating other systems as well.. It would be in your best interest to have installation manuals on each system you would like to include in your house. Read them all then buy your components, special tools, and cable so that they are all on the job site ahead of your proposed start date.

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Is it Possible to Cheat with ExamSoft?

Exam takers often wonder whether exam security systems can be breached. As a provider of such a system, ExamSoft implements both cheating prevention and post-exam cheating detection systems. While it is impossible to know how many instances of potential cheating have been prevented, our staff and systems have been responsible for helping our clients identify or confirm cases of illicit behavior after the fact. This role is not always popular. In particular, we are often asked why we use techniques to "lock-down" laptops and prevent access to outside tools or applications. We use such techniques specifically because we are trying to help exam takers, including students and professionals.
Moving an exam from a pen-and-paper format to a computer-based format seems very natural, particularly in today's technology-centric world. However, it is fraught with challenges for administrators. ExamSoft seeks to give exam takers the benefits that come with technology, while satisfying the needs and concerns of the test administrators.

ExamSoft provides the opportunity for exam takers to leverage their own laptops and/or institutional computer labs (depending on the institutional client's choice) to take their exams. The idea is to give exam takers one or more of the following opportunities:

To type their essay answers rather than write them by hand; depending on the specific exam, this might come with certain computer-based tools such as cut-paste or spell-check
To receive score results more quickly than is typically possible with bubble-sheet or blue-book systems
To receive detailed, personalized exam performance feedback, to guide future study or personal development efforts (i.e. get personal emails)
To have their digital answer files regularly backed up during the test, to mitigate risks of potential data loss
To have exam questions that are evaluated/measured for validity and fairness
To test in a location that is as convenient as possible (as opposed to a remote, locked down testing center, for example)
To go green

The student or exam taker preferences often pose challenges for schools and other institutions. Exam administrators want to provide exams that are fair and valid. This means that they need to remain vigilant to prevent security breaches and find security vulnerabilities. It is a continual effort since there are always a small, but impactful number of people looking for ways to cheat or exploit any security system. Unfortunately, this means that the actions or potential actions of a few, impact the experiences of the many who simply want to study for and perform as well as they can, honestly, on their exams. ExamSoft's staff comes to work every day, trying to find ways to improve the experience for all exam takers, while also trying to stop the small number of cheaters from impacting the whole bunch.

If you ever encounter anything that might help us improve the user experience or security level, for the benefit of all exam takers, please let us know. We really want to help and we work to improve each day. We can be reached at or 954-429-8889.

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Flat Roof Repair For Dummies

Like all roofs flat roofs require regular maintenance. Localised damage on the smooth surface of an asphalt or bitumen felt covering, e.g. splits and blisters can be patch-repaired with a repair kit. Repairing a flat roof is not difficult even for complete novices.

To deal with splits, first remove any chippings. Use a blow torch or hot air paint stripper to soften the roof covering so that you can scrape the chippings away. Then, before embarking on the actual repair work, clean the area and kill any moss and lichen with a fungicide or bleach. Take care when cleaning because the effectiveness of any repair work will depend on the adhesiveness of the surface when you apply any patches.

Use self-adhesive tape to repair the split. Most of them are suitable for use on all types of roof coverings. Fill a wide split with a mastic compound before taping. Apply the primer supplied over the area to be covered and leave for one hour. Peel off the protective backing of the tape and apply it to the primed surface. Where a short split has occurred along a joint, cover the whole line of the joint with tape. Press the tape down firmly and make sure that the edges are sealed.

Blisters in asphalt or felt roofs only need to be treated if they contain water or have caused the roof covering to leak. Press the blister to check if moisture is expelled. If so, it must be sealed with a patch.

To repair a blister in an asphalt roof, heat the area with a blow torch or hot air paint stripper. When it is soft, try to flatten the blister. If the blister is filled with moisture, cut the blister open and let the moisture dry out. Gently heat the asphalt again before pressing it back into place. Apply mastic into the opening before closing it. Finally cover the area with a patch of repair tape.

To treat a blister on a felt roof make two intersecting cuts across the blister and peel back the felt. You can heat the felt gently to make this easier. Clean the opening and let it dry. Then apply bitumen adhesive and when it has set a little, nail the covering back into place with galvanised clout nails. Finally, cover the repair with a patch of roofing felt glued on with bitumen adhesive or use repair tape. Cut the patch generously so that it laps all round.

A patched roof can be spruced up by applying a finishing coat of bitumen and chippings to create a more uniform surface area. If the surface covering has decayed you may have to re-cover the roof. However, a roof showing signs of general wear and tear can be brought back to life with a liquid waterproofing treatment. This consists of the cold application of a bitumen-based water proofer which is reinforced with a glass-fibre membrane. This should be done during warm and dry weather.

First clean the roof and kill any moss and lichen. Apply the first coat of water proofer with a broom and then lay the membrane into the wet material and stipple it with a soaked brush. Make sure the edges overlap by 5 cm or more and bed them down with water proofer. Apply three coats altogether. Let each coat dry before applying the next. Clean the brush with soapy water before each coating. When the last coat starts to set, cover it with fine chippings to provide a protective layer.

Repairing a flat roof is not difficult and within the capability of most people. By following the steps outlined above you can successfully repair a flat roof in very little time.

Friday, September 14, 2012

Outfit Your Little Cowpoke's Room With Mighty Cute Western Bedding

When the time comes to redecorate your growing son's room it can be difficult to know just where to begin. You definitely want to create a cozy and inviting space that he won't outgrow too quickly, so whatever theme you choose has to have considerable staying power. Kids bedding can play a vital role in successfully transforming a baby boy's nursery into a unique place clearly intended for your own very confident brand new "big boy".

Themed linen collections for children can effectively reinforce the decorative motif you and your little one select, and, with a bit of old-fashioned comparison shopping, you can successfully locate a cute quality set without spending a small fortune. Start by listing all of the motifs that your boy might like; this imaginative brainstorming exercise can be a great deal of fun in and of itself, so by all means include your young co-decorator as you two consider various options and zero in on the best idea.

Boys bedding features so many different themes chances are very good you will be able to narrow your online search almost immediately. It can be tempting to buy the first set you like without asking many questions, but take the time to consider what sort of fabrics are most appropriate for your family's lifestyle and monetary reality. Are you willing to invest in a dry-clean only collection, or one that requires a great deal of special care?

Good news: The overwhelming majority of bedding designers out there completely understand the fact that time-strapped moms and dads are interested in tracking down good-looking linens that can be thrown into the washer and dryer without shrinking or fading. Most themed sets offer durable high thread-count cotton sheets that grow softer with each wash, along with stunningly appliqued quilts constructed with fabrics made to endure frequent laundering--to say nothing of the usual daily wear and tear your little one is almost certain to inflict.

Cowboy and western themes have long been a top choice among little boys who've proudly made it through their toddler years and are now busily engaged in throwing themselves wholeheartedly into the great new adventure of boyhood. If your son chooses a cowboy motif, then you can easily fashion a top-rate and blessedly inexpensive bunkhouse hideaway for your favorite sleepy cowpoke with the help of one or two sets of cute and comfortable Western bedding.

Easy-care fabrics like classic cotton bandanna prints and warm, snugly micro-suede are routinely included in the bulk of very reasonably priced and adorable cowboy and western-themed bedding collections sold online, so if you are interested in buying one you are sure to rest easy. When his teeth are brushed and his bedtime story is over, settle your tuckered little hombre into one of any number of truly extraordinary bedding sets that pay homage to life on the range.

You can easily buy easy care fabrics like cotton bandanna prints and micro suede through internet by doing online shopping as these fabrics are sold in large numbers through online as a part of the western-themed bedding collections. At the end of his day when it's time to tuck in your tired young buckaroo, he surely will love to dream of riding into the sunset snug in any one of many amazing bed sets celebrating the old west.

Cowboy and Western-themed bedding has long been a staple for little boys' bedrooms, and are perfect for young toddlers who are just about ready to begin the vast new adventure known as boyhood. There is a terrific selection of reasonably priced sets of children linens, and a little boy who loves to play cowboys and Indians might really appreciate a room fashioned for him using children cowboy bedding.

Boys bedding collections comes in so many colors and styles that you will find beautiful bedding with ease online, that is perfect for your little one. When you have found a set you like you might think there are no more questions to be asked, don't forget there are other important considerations to weigh up, consider your lifestyle and be honest about your financial reality and ask yourself if the quality of the fabric is the most appropriate, too, before you buy. You can purchase sets that require particular care or are dry-clean only, but is that an investment you wish to make?

Monday, September 10, 2012

Canadian Gift Card Swap

Canadians now have a way to turn their unwanted gift cards into cash. For years millions of dollars of these plastic cards have been lost, stolen or expired. The lost cards have been created a huge windfall for the stores that issues them and never end up having to part with any merchandise or refunds for unused cards. While several websites in the US that buy and sell gift cards have been around for years, none of them have provided an outlet for Canadian consumers. There are currently a couple ways to get cash for your cards but until recently there have not been any services that offer the same simplicity and ease American sites have offered. In this article we will examine the top three Canadian gift card swap techniques.

Canadians can and always have been able to sell their cards on ebay Canada. Although it is not dedicated purely to gift certificates the auction website provides a relatively easy way to sell a card. I say relatively easy because if you have not already signed up for an account it can be a pain to learn how to use the website. It is not simple for newbie's and you may need to make a couple purchases first to build up your ebay street credit. This credit or trust ranking is called feedback on ebay and people will rarely bid on an auction if the sell has low feedback.

Another way you can sell your cards is by using local classified or online classifieds websites. Although many people do use these services as a card swap they can be time consuming. Not only do you need to wait for someone to reply to the ad you post but you will also need to meet up with them to exchange the card for cash. If you place the ad in a small community your are unlikely to get any replies, however if you live in a larger community and place an ad you are likely to get a response but a new problem will emerge. If you are selling your gift card in Toronto and live in downtown Toronto and someone in Oakville or one of the other suburbs wants to buy your card than you might have to drive half an hour just to meet up and do the exchange. This can turn the relatively easy process of selling your card on a classifieds site into a huge hassle.

A new Canadian solution has surfaced that will let you swap your cards for cash. A new gift card trading site that originally began as a gift cardswap quickly evolved into an easy to use service that gives you cash for your cards. All you have to do is submit some details about you card, send it in and within 24hrs of your card being verified you will receive payment online (cheques are available by request). Why use a gift card swap when you can instantly turn your card into cash? In this day and age who has the time to wait for a buyer to appear and then hope your escrow payment is released? The simplicity of this server is what makes it so great you simply exchange your unwanted cards for cold hard cash.

With retailers no longer offering cash back for their cards it was only a matter of time before a secondary industry sprang up to service this issues for consumers. Luckily Canadians now have a variety of viable options for turning there card into cash. These services will only become more common until retailers step up and take some responsibility for the value on the cards they issue.

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

SAP ERP Services: The Best Business Tool Ever Invented

As an entrepreneur, you may also be looking for new and efficient Strategies, Application integration, Collaborations, or Empowering your staff with secure access to information and you certainly wish for a common platform to enable all your business functions, a magic wand that would empower you like nothing else would.

The Magic WandTo strengthen the competitive advantage of your business requires you first to know and improve all the business processes. Similarly, to know and analyse your business problems you need to have all the facts before you to take a decision. In this technology driven age, you also need the strategy to take advantage of the latest technology available and have an efficient IT ambience for your office. The platform you are looking for is that of SAP services and the best business tool, the magic wand' you need, is the SAP ERP system.

The acronym SAP
SAP stands for Systems Applications and Products'. It was founded in 1972 by five former IBM employees and today it is world's largest inter-enterprise software. SAP applications provide the capability to manage financial, asset and cost accounting, materials and production operations, plants and warehouse, human resources and data repositories. The latest R/3 system is now being used which runs on a variety of computer operating systems and works similar to the client and server model.

Enterprise Core Component
All SAP's products focus on Enterprise Resource Planning', and SAP ERP is the main product, the current version being SAP ERP 6.0. If used strategically this can prove to be the best business tool one can ever possess, and can perhaps run an entire business enterprise in a most dynamic way.

Examples of SAP in business
Finance: One can now achieve the financial goals by streamlining the financial reporting and periodic closings, be it monthly, quarterly or annual. You can also provide all information your financial department may require from time to time for a better performance.

Procurement: Now you can easily monitor your inventory and procurement activities, integrate the data for sourcing and procurement, and negotiate with supplies more effectively.

Information Technology: Your enterprise can now be transformed into a highly efficient business platform, deliver reliable and useful information, control and optimize all the IT operations of your business. You can also have Enterprise mobility solutions and leverage the many features-rich capabilities of smartphones and tablets to enable your staff to access data on the move by using enabled business solutions.

Manufacturing: With SAP support you can analyze and assess all manufacturing processes and strategically align them according to your desired goals. You can manage your supply chain more efficiently, face any cost and quality problems and provide the appropriate solution.

Service sector: You can ensure continuous improvement in the performance of your staff by efficient tracking, billing and client support. You can also have an improved system of after-sales service by using

Today thousands of large as well as small to medium enterprises are using SAP enabled services to run their business more effectively, efficiently and energetically. Why don't you be one too?

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Types Of Consumer Loans

As we mentioned in previous articles everybody knows that banks are a major consumer lender, they represent over 70 higher than prime rate) due monthly with the condition that the lender has the right to recall a demand loan at any time.

5. Installment loans
Installment loans offered by financial institutions to borrowers with certain conditions such as a set interest rate, a maturity date, a repayment schedule, and certain security requirements.

I hope this information will help. If you need more information, you can read the complete series of the above subject at my home page:

Monday, August 20, 2012

Do you Need a Bankruptcy Attorney in Los Angeles, CA?

Financial hardship marked by an income not sustainable to pay off debts and other expenses can drive one to file for bankruptcy. The decision to do so is never made lightly and the complexities of filing a petition can often be very daunting and stressful whether dealing with a business or personal financial hardship. As the pros and cons of filing for bankruptcy are evaluated, various question arise that may be difficult to answer without the guidance of a good bankruptcy lawyer.

Some of these questions include:

Are you qualified to file for bankruptcy under the California Bankruptcy rules and regulations?

Which chapter is the best option for you?

How long will it take before your debts are discharged?

In lieu of using internet to look for general answers, it is best to understand that different states or jurisdictions have criteria that can easily affect bankruptcy law. This makes talking with an expert bankruptcy attorney in Los Angeles, CA the best option for you.

So, why exactly do you need a bankruptcy attorney in Los Angeles, CA?

The laws of bankruptcy change often and are not every easy to understand. If there is a lack of current knowledge on California bankruptcy law, it would be very difficult for you or your business to be aware of the best course of action to take in relation to your debts.

A good bankruptcy attorney in Los Angeles, CA can quickly and easily assess your situation and set the best course of action that will rectify the situation within the shortest time possible. He/she will be able to direct you toward the right option that will best protect your existing assets as well as your future credit standing. The bankruptcy lawyer will also be aware of any recent chances or precedents that may affect your bankruptcy case.

Like most cases, filing for bankruptcy must never be entered lightly. This means that proper steps need to be taken from the very beginning of the process through to the end (same as from the time papers are filed to the time debts are discharged). If you miss any steps or a wrong choice is made, further complications will arise making it hard for you to rebuild your credit. So you will need a bankruptcy attorney in Los Angeles, CA to make sure that your plead is filed correctly, at the right time and with the sole process of protecting your rights and preventing the loss of your assets.

Other reasons why you need a bankruptcy attorney in Los Angeles is they are certified to offer legal advice on bankruptcy, they will help you make sense of all complex laws whether filing Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy, they have experience in bankruptcy proceedings and can offer more information on how to avoid future financial hardships.

With the right bankruptcy attorney in Los Angeles, CA, you will save yourself countless hours of frustration and worrying about the same thing. In fact, they will walk you through all steps of the bankruptcy process.

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Important Facts About Becoming a Qualified Dump Truck Driver!

Becoming a qualified dump truck driver opens up a range of new possibilities and job opportunities. Obtaining the essential education and on-the-job skills training to safely operate a new or used dump truck will have gained a sense of confidence and should experience greater success in the dump truck industry than an unqualified driver.

It is also important to note that possessing a normal driver's license does not automatically qualify a person to operate a dump truck. Heavy machinery handled by unqualified personnel can cause serious or even fatal injuries to the operator and co-workers; this is exactly why precautionary training courses must be completed before a person can have the necessary qualifications to drive this heavy-duty vehicle.

Training Programs

There are hundreds of schools across the United States that provide the necessary training to operate a dump truck. Successful students will receive a Commercial Driver's License (CDL) once they have completed the program and passed, all necessary tests. Specific CDL's are issued for different types of vehicles, which means that holding a CDL for one type of truck does not automatically qualify the driver to operate another type of heavy-duty vehicle.

These programs involve hands-on training, where applicants are taught how to: properly operate the vehicle; loading and unloading of the truck; comprehensive safety instructions; and general maintenance information.


Not surprisingly, learning about safety is the most important part of becoming a qualified dump truck driver. Vehicles that carry heavy loads are harder to steer on the road and have the potential to cause more injuries and property damage to other vehicles if there is a collision. Under circumstances involving adverse weather conditions or slippery road surfaces, a driver's job becomes even more difficult.

Used dump trucks must be thoroughly inspected before being put on the road. Trainees must also learn to exercise extreme caution not only for their own safety, but also to ensure the safety of co-workers while on the job site. Securing cargo using chains or ropes is also part of the necessary precautions, as is the method of loading of the truck. This may involve using forklifts or even manual loading, both of which require specific training.

Load Supervision

In addition to safety, students are taught: how to examine an incoming load; how to calculate the volume and weight of the cargo; and various methods for handling the many different types of material that could be carried. Ensuring that a vehicle is safe to use before putting it into operation is the responsibility of the driver; therefore, most schools include courses about vehicle examination and maintenance, tire replacement, cleaning, and emergency repairs in case of a breakdown while on the road.

It is important to note that there are many different kinds of dump trucks, such as trailers, semi-trailers, off-road, side dump and articulated models, all of which have slightly different operating procedures. There are many truck driving schools across the country from which aspiring drivers can choose to be able to meet all of the essential qualifications required to obtain a CDL for the operation of a specific dump truck. These are the important facts to know how to become a dump truck driver!

Saturday, August 11, 2012

Get A Used Rv For Sale Cheap At Repo Auctions

There are several advantages to buying an RV at auction. You can literally save thousands on the initial purchase. Dealers generally need to mark new RVs up 30 to 40% to cover their overhead. While it's not unheard of to buy a used RV below wholesale at auction. You are also less likely to end upside on the purchase, since the price is heavily discounted when you buy. And you may be able to avoid today's tight market for financing altogether.

Yes, you can find campers for sale at auction in very good condition You're buying someone's used vacation vehicle, or the inventory off a lot when a dealer left the business or went bankrupt. Financiers usually require quite good credit to buy an RV new. Chances are good that the unit you're buying was well looked after. You may even be able to get a used RV for sale still under the manufacturer's warranty.

So, how do you find the best auctions? RVs go on sale regularly as a result of government surpluses (like the FEMA campers for Hurricane Katrina), seized vehicles, and repos. The key is to find the auctions which are generally not well publicized. The key is to find out where and how often. There aren't a lot of ways to find the auctions.

* Keep an eye on your local classified ads, and Craigslist. You're looking for auctions sponsored by a government body. They'll usually show up as "Government Auctions", or "State Auctions", "Marshall's auctions" or something similar.
* Read the RV trades and press and look for announcements.
* Make a local dealer your friend. They may tell you where they find used campers or even look out for a specific model for you for a small fee.
* Join a site that announces public auctions.

A website is your most convenient option and the most reliable. They will collect all the information you need for a host of auctions in your area and around the country - times and places of sales, directions, and contact information if the auction is live. And they'll let you bid from your PC if the auction is online. Do your homework though, the few very good auction sites track thousands of auctions. They vary widely in the amount they charge you, the kinds of auctions they track, and how easy it is to find the auctions you want on their site.

Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Ambience Mall Gurgaon And Ambience Mall Vasant Kunj: Shopping And Recreational Zones

Shopping and recreational complexes have become the hallmark of a city's financial prosperity and economic development. For this reason all Indian metro cities moving on pathway of financial development adore themselves with beautiful shopping skyscrapers and buildings. Ambience Mall Gurgaon provides a unique experience to shop and enjoy. For this reason it has attained great fame in Indian real estate market. It is one of the largest venues in India for doing shopping and having recreation. Visitors will have to devote a whole day to visit this mall as it holds many attractions. It is located at Ambience Island off NH-8, Gurgaon. It has many magnificent showrooms, food junctions, cafes, restaurants, recreation centers and movie multiplexes.

Purchase stores of reputed consumer service tycoons like Reliance and Debenhams will enhance the thrill and enjoyment of customers coming to this place. One can buy products of international brands at this shopping and recreational complex. It has 3 floors and covers a total area of 3 km. It contains specially made spacious stores, visitors can buy many kinds of consumer commodities here. All stores are decorated with great interior designs. Purchase brands like Hush Puppies and Debenhams may create a deep impression on minds of guests and buyers arriving at Ambience Mall Gurgaon. One great advantage of this mall is that it is located just 8 km away from Gurgaon Expressway. People coming to this route from Delhi can have a visit to this shopping and recreational center during their journey. The building has been constructed well in attractive hues of red and blue.

Ambience Mall Vasant Kunj is one of the most famous shopping centers in Delhi. It comprises a serious of well constructed showrooms, restaurants, food junctions and recreation zones for all people. It is located at Nelson Mandela Road. It enroutes airport of the city and has routes going to different parts of New Delhi especially up market areas of Vasant Vihar, Shanti Niketan and West End. Ambience Mall Vasant Kunj was planned by DDA comprising two additional malls. It covers an area of 650 acres of land and landscape portion of Jawaharlal University. One can see as well enjoy a lot of entertainment and recreational facilities at this venue. This building has a hyper market, multiplex cinema with four screens, restaurants, a family entertainment center and a beer garden. Children can enjoy here at the special kids play zone. Those people who are conscious about there health and fitness can come to the special fitness center. There is a special show room for car buyers. Parking facility at this ambience
building is nice. It can accommodate 1800 cars at a time. Additional facilities like high speed elevators, wide atrium spaces and escalators with uninterrupted power supply are also present here. One can find multiple ways to make entry and exit from this multiplex building. Visitors coming to this mall can find a perfect blend of consumer commodity showrooms and recreation zones. This building is meant to buy and enjoy leisure hours after making purchase.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Home Loan Modifications - The 5 Eligibility Requirements

Modification of a Wells Fargo, Chase, Bank of America (Countrywide) loan is a great option for homeowners struggling to meet their financial obligations. One of the remarkable features of loan modification is "reduced loan interest rates".


"Wells Fargo" loan modification is based on the negotiation between you as a borrower and your lender on your current loan. If you are an existing customer who is not able to pay your loan back due to our own financial crisis and loss of income, Wells Fargo will help you to protect you from such crisis. There are many factors that you need to you to keep in mind before you try to process your application for modification.


First, you have to go through Wells Fargo lending criteria to know your eligibility for obtaining a loan modification. You may have a chance for the loan, but you have to properly submit all your documents according to the terms, conditions and guidelines set forth by Wells Fargo. First you have to submit your income document -very important step. Your loan will be approved according to all your financial conditions. Essentially you will have to submit your three years income tax return, six months bank statements and some other required documents relating to your income. You should not submit any kind of fake information or documents to Well Fargo.

Upon verifying of all your documents and information they will go to the next step in sanctioning your modification terms. You should always keep a constant check on your file status. You have to call your lender frequently to create some pressure on your lender to take care of your loan.


The chase bank mortgage loan modification is really a great relief for suffering homeowners in saving their homes from auction due to non-repayments of their monthly dues. As a borrower, the bank will instruct some user friendly terms and conditions which you have to follow. Usually the bank insists that you default a payment before requesting a modification and then they will assign one or two representatives to speak with you about the loan modification. You should attend discussions with representatives with your last two months' bank statement and income tax statement along with the pay slips. In addition you will have to submit a hardship letter. By submitting these documents, the bank will find out a suitable plan to avoid defaults.


There are some simple steps which you have to follow for a Countrywide Home Loan Modification. When you apply for modification of your loan, you have to create a checklist of all information, forms and essential documents that will be needed from your bank or mortgage lender. This will help you to save a lot of time and frustration in the future.

As a borrower, you should set up a new family and personal budget so that after modifying your loan, you will be able to consistently make payments on time-this payment should be an amount which you can easily afford. You need to minimize possible expenditures when creating this budget for a lender such Countrywide. It is important to all lenders that you are able to pay the new monthly payment after a loan modification.

You should write a detailed "Financial Hardship" letter stating your financial problems. In this letter you have to clearly note the debts you have, your monthly income, and the facts about your financial situation. These documents are for convincing the lender that the loan modification is the best action for them to take. You have to explain any causes of your financial hardships and what will be done to prevent such things from happening in the future. By doing so, you will be creating an impression that you will never miss another mortgage payment and they will be more likely to approve your modification request.

After completing and sending in all the paperwork and applications, the lender will scrutinize these documents and will finally call you for direct discussion. During that time, make sure that you have a copy of the documents that you have sent your lender. They will question you about your paperwork and further verify your request and all supporting documents.

If you follow all the above procedures correctly, you will have a much greater chance of obtaining a Mortgage from your chosen lender.

Cheap Car Hire Cape Town

Cape Town is blessed with as many discount car rental companies as Johannesburg has, although the market is not as large. We have searched for a cheap car rental company that has discounted car hire in Cape Town, which will also let you rent a car with no credit card even if you are a backpacker/student and only 18 years old and have just received your drivers licence. Discount Student cars are hard to come by, as the norm in Cape Town's car rental industry has been that you were only able to rent a car if you were 23 years of age or in some cases 25 years old and in the possession of a credit card. On top of that, you had to be the owner of the credit card. Now, some car renters have tried to get discount car hire using someone else's card, yet this is deemed as fraud and can not be accepted by any car rental company. We found no cheap car rental for cash in our internet search. We have however, identified a need for hiring cars with no credit card and did some research. We discovered that people were searching for 'credit card car rentals in Cape Town', as well as 'cash car rental Cape Town airport'.

There is a new trend in Europe, one that is spreading to other parts of the world. Shops, retailers and international companies are accepting fewer credit cards; instead they prefer you to pay by debit card or cash. A recent survey from major international retail stores in Europe revealed that this trend is increasing with the result being that a growing amount of visitors to Cape Town and South Africa are in need of a discount car hire in Cape Town; and are not able to rent a car as they do not own a credit card. Drive Africa has made it our mission to source and find reputable companies in Cape Town that can offer either discounted cash car rentals or debit card car rentals at very attractive prices ( in addition, to also keep their cash deposits to a minimum). To rent a car in Cape Town with discount was difficult to find.

This in itself was quite a mission, as every car rental company we approached was reluctant to offer their cars for rent to backpackers or students in Cape Town without the security of a local or international credit card. We approached some of the smaller cheap car hire companies in Cape Town and convinced them that this product is needed in Cape Town. This is a trend which stems from Europe and it is only going to increase. An increasing amount of foreign visitors to Cape Town would be looking to make use of discount car hire for cash or would like to use their debit cards for paying their rental car. Some rental companies listened to us and we were able to convince them to allow cash car hire for students and backpackers for discounted car hire in Cape Town with a few provisos' that they set. Click here for further information pertaining to cheap car hire in Cape Town.

The discount rental company would need proof of residence while visiting Cape Town, as they will take a copy of the air ticket, ID or passport and take cash deposit to secure the cheap car hire with no credit card. We have therefore identified some companies and are now able to exclusively offer discount car hire to our clients, namely students in Cape Town, a package only available to Drive Africa at this stage. We have made sure that even the cheapest car hire or low priced car rental that we offer on our website has all the correct, government approved insurances that come with the rental, so that if you have an accident or your car is stolen while you are renting it, it is always correctly insured to completely covers you. Remember, these are not 4x4 rental cars. Please go to 4x4 hire South Africa and choose the car of your choice that suits your needs.

So if you hire a car from Drive Africa using cash or your debit card, you can hire with peace of mind knowing that that the cheap car rental in Cape Town that you were searching for is right here, allowing you to book with confidence. Drive Africa also has a financial guarantee in place as well as being proud members of Cape Town Tourism and members of the Tourism body SATSA (Southern Africa Tourism Services Association) that has a financial guarantee in place for renters of Drive Africa and they in turn have bestowed our site with the international website body Dot Travel approved sites stamp. They assure through their accreditation, that we are a fully fledged car rental company offering discount car hire and are not just a virtual company on the internet. A bonus is that the minimum age for student car hire in Cape Town or a backpacker car rental is 18 and all you need is a valid driver's license; as there is no minimum time that you have had to have your driver's license for.

We welcome you to Cape Town, and especially to come and rent a discount car in Cape Town from us. This will definitely make your stay an unforgettable one.

Friday, July 20, 2012

Obtaining Approvals For Second Chance Checking Accounts Online Successfully - The Top Benefits

Creating and submitting an application for a second chance checking account online is perhaps the easiest method to get an account started. Most financial institutions today have internet websites. This way, you save yourself time from visiting the bank physically which could take a few hours depending on the crowd.

In several cases, sending in a digital application is also essentially the most practical way. Some finance institutions may have very few branches in a state. It may be a good hour's drive one-way before you get to the nearest local branch. With the high gas costs, it is definitely expensive. Plus, it also very time depleting. Furthermore, some second chance banking institutions only do business online, so the only approach to open the account is on the web, which fortunately also happens to be one of the most effective.

Prior to you starting on the online application, it could be a good suggestion to check on the benefits that you will get with the account of choice. Also read the web site and when you have any question, you may want to read the frequently asked questions section for answers. Some of your concerns may not be the same as others so if you feel that you need extra explanation on something, you can ask the customer support phone line or contact representatives via e-mail to obtain clarification. You can check the availability of ATMs near you on the list provided. Don't rush through. Take time to understand every thing that you have gone through before you click to apply.

As soon as you have understood every thing and are completely ready to apply, click on the second chance checking accounts online application link or banner. We will to go over what the typical steps needed are. Every second chance bank is different, so expect some differences amongst different banks.

In most online applications, as soon as you choose to start the application, you will be directed to a start section that lists for you several actions that will be needed for the application. The first step to come up is typically the disclosure in which you'll agree to the areas the bank may or can disclose the details you supply them. You will find boxes for you to tick 'yes' or 'no' answer which you will answer yes should you want them to use the details for their advertising or other purposes. Just click 'no' should you feel otherwise.

Right after that is carried out, you'll be required to sign electronically and agree that you have accepted to receive information and that you intend to supply your information honestly. One crucial step to remember would be to print out a copy of the disclosure and application along with your signature before submitting the application online. When you have your signature on it, it indicates you have accepted the terms and conditions. This becomes a contract.

It is best to be honest and complete in providing all needed information. The more complete your answers, the less annoyance it might be for the back and forth down the road. Arguably, having nobody to assist oneself when filling in an application could the principal drawback to most in terms of opening an account online. Nevertheless, a lot of people are able to manage it.

Last but not least, to complete the second chance checking accounts online application, you might be asked to provide 1 or 2 forms of identification, conceivably copies of your driver's licence or other recognized photo IDs. Some banks may require notarized copies to be sent over. You may be asked to mail the application to the second chance bank and wait for some time for it to be processed. As soon as the application is approved, you ought to get an email approval. There may be a couple of final steps before the second chance account is officially opened. But by and large, you would have gotten the confirmation you need - that your application has been accepted and approved.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

With Structure And Purpose: A New Approach To Regulating Medical Marijuana

The Ohio Medical Cannabis Act of 2012

This Amendment exempts Ohio's sick and dying those with specific debilitating medical conditions and symptoms from all criminal and civil penalties. Patients must obtain a written recommendation from their doctor to use medical cannabis, register with the state, and follow the provisions of this Amendment.

Known as patients, they must apply for and obtain a photo identification registry card entitling them to use, buy, possess, and transport a maximum of two hundred grams of usable cannabis. Patients may also cultivate up to twelve mature cannabis plants to alleviate their suffering. A patient can designate a caretaker a family member, roommate or person with their medical power of attorney, twenty-one years or older to buy, posses and transport medical cannabis for the patient under their care.
A New State Agency Modeled on a Familiar Framework

The Ohio Medical Cannabis Act of 2012 creates governmental bodies to regulate, control and enforce the mission of this proposed Amendment. The Cannabis Commision is designed to prevent access to medical cannabis by those not authorized to use it, while reying upon and mirroring existing laws in the Ohio Revised Code.

Our ammendment mirrors the proven regulatory business structure of the Ohio State Liquore Controll Board. While the infrastructure may be similar, the rules and regulations to be applied are specificly written for the strict controll of medical cannabis. A well regulated, state-wide system governing the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of medical cannabis for the sole benefit of Ohio's sick and dying, provides the strongest form of protection for patients and the citizens of Ohio.

Modeling a regulatory system upon existing, proven law provides "uniformity of legislation," which further increases the degree of protection for patients, caretakers and their providers of medical cannabis.

The Ohio Liquor Control Board and their governing laws, now 77 years old, are well known and understood by Ohioans, police departments, prosecutors, the courts and local elected officials. This uniformity of legislation leaves no legal gray areas. There are 77 years of legal precedence from which the courts can draw opinions. Therefore there is little chance for misunderstandings and confusion over how these laws will work for medical marijuana. This will dramatically reduce the chances of anyone being improperly arrested and prosecuted when following the law.
The Ohio Commission of Cannabis Control

This commission is empowered to oversee the Division of Cannabis Control, the Superintendent of Cannabis Control and to create rules and regulations necessary to fulfill the mission of the Ohio Medical Cannabis Act of 2012. The commission's core infrastructure is based upon the Ohio Commission of Liquor Control. By serving the public interest in this fashion, the Amendment relieves the Ohio General Assembly from having to dedicate time and effort to developing it's own unique rules and regulations through legislation.

While the governing infrastructure of the Ohio Commission of Cannabis Control is modeled off of the Ohio Commission of Liquor Control, the rules to be enforced are by no means the same and are written to greatly support the rights of patients while preventing access for recreational use and protecting those providing this medication.
The Commissioners and How Appointed

The Governor will appoint nine commissioners from a list of expert candidates presented by the reprisentatives of Ohio's seven medical colleges, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, and the Ohio Bar Association, and from applications submitted by patients, medical cannabis cultivators and entrepreneurs. Other representatives of the state will also be seated as non-voting ex-officio members, so as to represent all stakeholders in the state: law enforcement, public health officials, the Attorney General, the Ohio Senate, and the Ohio House of Representatives.

To the greatest extent as possible, due in part to how these commissioners are chosen, this commission will be science-based, objective, practical and devoid of the partisan and political discrimination.
The Ohio Division of Cannabis Control

Based upon the Ohio Division of Liquor Control, this body will assist the commission by establishing standards, putting in place the regulatory staff and enforcing the laws and rules related to the business of cannabis in the state using trained agents acting in the same manner as liquor control agents.

All agents will be trained and each must attend and obtain certificates from educational organizations, like Oaksterdam University, showing that they have studied and fully understand all the issues involved in the field of medical cannabis.

The Division of Cannabis Control, like the Division of Liquor Control will accept, review and issue all permits. This includes developing a system to provide patients, caretakers and commercial permit holders with confidential registration photo identification cards and creating a secure, confidential verification system for use by law enforcement.
The Superintendent of Cannabis Control

Appointed by the Director of the Department of Commerce, this individual will be responsible for operating the Division of Cannabis Control.
An Exceptional Standard of Excellence

This proposed system of regulatory bodies contains all the checks and balances required to assure the public interest is well served. The Commission, Superintendent and Division of Liquor Control, with its 144 employees, is today considered one of the most effective and efficient state governmental bodies in the United States. This level of excellence has made Ohio's liquor agency a subject for privatization by Ohio Governor Kasich.

By following this excellent regulatory model, with uniformity of legislation, we are assured the Commission, Superintendent and Division of Cannabis Control will serve the public interest with an equal standard of excellence.
Keeping Black-Marketers Out of the Business

A concern is the assurance that those participating in the state's new medical cannabis programs are safe, both legally and from the harms associated with the black-market.

We do not want people involved in this program who are willing to break laws in order to enhance the ill-gotten proceeds of their illegal trade. Organized crime, violence, theft, fraud, blackl, etc. will have no place, nor opportunity in this new program designed to benefit the sick and dying of Ohio.

To assure these criminal elements are excluded requires regulatory vigilance and dedicated enforcement; the same used to govern and regulate Ohio's liquor laws, of which have worked well for over 77 years.
Background Checks and Fingerprinting

The Ohio Division of Liquor Control issues 24,000 liquor permits each year to Ohio businesses. To obtain a liquor permit, the applicant must submit fingerprints and have a background check conducted by the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation (BCI) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Again, by adopting uniformity of legislation, we mandate the same for those applying for commercial permits from the Ohio Division of Cannabis control.
Excluded Felony Offense

The Ohio Division of Liquor Control excludes all persons with felony convictions from obtaining a liquor permit. Special consideration for a permit applicant with a felony conviction on a case-by-case basis is permitted and we propose the same.

A person convicted for felony marijuana crimes is excempt if the conduct which lead to their prosecution would likely have been legal under the provisions of this ammendment. For example, a chronically ill person convicted of treating themselves with medical cannabis will be allowed to apply for a permit. Also, a person convicted in another state for a felony marijuana crime will be exempt from this rule if that crime would be considered a misdemeanor in Ohio, or if the completion of sentence occurred more than ten years prior to the application for a permit.
Local Option Laws

To assure these proposed laws are thoroughly enforced, there will be uniformety throughout the state. We understand that local officials will appreciate not being forced to develop their own laws, rules and regulations for medical cannabis.The need for local legeslation in other medical marijuana states, has lead to many complications. We avoid this and consequently save our state's 2,800 independent political bodies of 20,000 elected officials from effectively re-inventing the wheel.

We realize that some localities in the state may wish to not allow medical cannabis retail establishments. Just as townships may not wish to permit the sale of spirituous beverages, citizens may ban there presence using the same Local Option Laws designed to designate a "Dry" township. If this is the case, voters of a precinct may elect to place upon their local ballot a measure giving the voters in that precinct the right to choose.
Non-Discriminatory Banking

In order to better regulate and control the business of medical cannabis in Ohio, this Amendment mandates all banks licensed by the Ohio Department of Commerce provide the same banking services to medical cannabis commercial permit holders as any other customer. Banks are not mandated under this initiative to provide loans.

The Ohio Medical Cannabis Act of 2012 will provide Ohio's sick and dying safe access to medical cannabis for the treatment and alleviation of their pain and suffering.

Patients will be allowed to possess 200 grams of usable cannabis (presently a misdemeanor with a maximum penalty of 30 days in jail and/or 0 fine). Patients may also cuultivate 12 mature cannabis plants. The cost of a patient ID card will be no more than double the cost of a drivers license [a maximum of roughly today]. Patients from other medical cannabis states with a valid ID will be recognized in Ohio and must adhere to the provisions of this ammendment.

Aside of the freedom from arrest and imprisonment by the state, there is no more important right for a patient than the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). In short, this federal law ensures the rights of patients to keep private and confidential all information regarding their health, healthcare practices and their doctor patient relationships.

This Amendment guarantees to patients the rights to keep all information, records and data concerning aspects of their medical conditions and use of medical cannabis private and confidential. No person or state agency shall force a patient to waive their HIPAA rights, either by inducement or mandate.
Qualifying Medical Conditions

All federally approved medical conditions for the use of medical cannabis covered under the federal Compassionate Investigational New Drug program, begun in 1978 and continuing to this date, including but not limited to:

Multiple Congenital Cartilaginous Exostosis
Multiple Sclerosis
Nail-patella Syndrome
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Added to the Amendment are:

Any terminal patient or person with a terminal condition
Agitation of Alzheimer's Disease
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Celiac Disease
Crohn's Disease
Hepatitis C
Post Traumatic Stress (PTSD)
Sickle Cell Anemia
Rheumatoid arthritis
Injury or disease to the spinal cord, spinal column, or vertebra; or the treatment of these conditions.
Those suffering from a "Debilitating medical condition."

"Debilitating medical condition means one or more of the following: All federally approved medical conditions for the use of medical cannabis covered under the federal Compassionate Investigational New Drug program, including but not limited to: cachexia or wasting syndrome; severe or chronic pain; severe or chronic nausea; seizures, including those characteristic of epilepsy; and severe or persistent muscle spasms.

The Commission may add new medical conditions to the qualifying list and individuals can petition the Commission to consider an additional medical condition.
Special Circumstances for Non-Qualifying Medical Conditions

A physician may petition the Commission's Medical Committee to allow a patient under their care whose medical condition is not listed as qualifying, but feels medical cannabis might provide a benefit, to obtain an ID. This allows for numerous "orphan" diseases and rare medical conditions that doctors often have difficulty treating, to qualify a patient for a medical ID card. Under these circomstances, the Commission may approve or deny the petition, or require the doctor to submit follow up reports and/or specify the unique conditions.

As an example, topical applications of medical cannabis have shown remarkably positive results in tests as a treatment for the often fatal, antibiotic-resistant MRSA disease. This is due in part to the strong antibiotic properties in some cultivars of cannabis that initiate apoptosis, or regulated cell death. In this case, the Commission may grant the ID, allow an ID with a limited expiration date, or limit the patient to only purchasing topical ointments containing medical cannabis.
For Terminal Patients and Patients with a Terminal Condition

Being terminally ill for any reason or cause, is listed as an official medical condition in our Amendment. This is a first for medical cannabis laws in the United States!

A "terminal condition" means that, even though there may be times when a condition is in remission, in all likelihood it will eventually lead to death. In this circomstance, the patient may obtain a permanent patient ID card without the required expiration and renewal requirements.
The Caretaker

A caretaker, as defined in this Amendment, is a patient's family member, a person who lives in the same residence as the patient, or a person holding the patient's medical power of attorney who is age twenty-one years or older and agrees to assist their patient with the medical use of cannabis. Caretakers may obtain a confidential registration identification card allowing them to purchase, posses and transport medical cannabis for the patient under their care. This Amendment recognizes the special and extraordinary responsibilities taken on by one who cares for the sick and attempts to make their lives easier. A caretaker may also apply for a patient ID card in assistance of their patient.
Patient ID Cards - No Waiting

This Amendment allows a patient to obtain a confidential registry photo ID card the same day they obtain a written certificate from their doctor and to obtain medical cannabis that same day. Patients may apply for and obtain their ID card from their local Deputy Registrars Office. The patient can, if they choose, mail an application to the Division and wait for a response.
A Seasonal Outdoor Cultivation Permit

This Amendment recognizes that the often expensive costs for medical cannabis can be dramatically reduced if the patient is able to cultivate their own medical cannabis. It also recognizes that Ohio's climatic and soil conditions are among the finest on earth for cultivating cannabis. As such, this Amendment allows the Division to issue a special seasonal permit to patients, allowing them to keep the total harvest from a yearly outdoor cultivation of 12 mature cannabis plants for personal use. The patient may keep the entire harvest, even though a seasonal harvest might produce more useable cannabis than otherwise allowed under the 200 gram limit.

Patients are not required to obtain an outdoor cultivation permit cultivate 12 mature cannabis plants, but they cannot exceed the 200 gram limit for usable medical cannabis. If a patient wishes to grow their own medical cannabis, they must designate their cultivation site on their yearly patient application form.
Driving while Under the Influence of Drugs (DUID)

Patients shall not be permitted to drive while impaired under the influence of medical cannabis. The penalties are sever and rightly so. However, this ammendment states that until and unless the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration develops and mandates standardized tests for operating a vehicle under the influence of cannabis, a registered qualified patient shall fail a generally accepted field sobriety tests given by law enforcement personnel, which shall be captured on a video recording devise for court proceedings, before the patient can be suspect of driving under the influence;

A provision in our state's DUID laws regarding the presence of metabolites from a controlled substance in the blood, offers the following exemption, The person obtained the controlled substance pursuant to a prescription issued by a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs. For the purpose of this Amendment we change the word prescription to written recommendation.
The Patient / Employer Relationship

Ohio is an "At Will" state and you can be fired for showing up late, or your choice of attire. However, there are specific anti-discrimination laws that prevent an employer from disciplining or firing their employees for race, sex, age, etc. and the Ohio Medical Cannabis Act adds new anti-discrimination language that prevents workplace abuses and allows a medical marijuana patient to bring suit if they were blatantly discriminated. However, workplace use of medical marijuana can be banned and the proposed law also provides clear language for employers to assure and protect their companies and fellow employees from any harm. Also, it will not protect a medical marijuana employee who is in a safety-sensitive position, i.e. transportation, law enforcement, etc
The Limits of Our Amendment for Patients

Due to the State's prohibition against the recreational use of marijuana and the blanket federal prohibitions in general, this Amendment requires certain provisions we would rather not impose upon the sick and dying. But to make this system work, to protect patients from the evil of the black-market, and to provide the best possible protections for the citizens of Ohio, this Amendment proposes certain compromises.
A Sales Tax on Medical Cannabis

Culinary herbs are the only herbs exempt from sales tax in Ohio and cannabis isn't a culinary herb. Cannabis would be listed as an herb or other botanical and classified as a dietary supplement that is taxable. Medical cannabis will be taxed the same as all other non-culinary herbs sold in the state, suck as bloodroot, St. John's worth, goldenseal, wormwood etc.

For cannabis to be listed as a medicine and exempt from Ohio sales tax requires the creation of specific regulations by the US Food and Drug Administration, and this Amendment unfortunately doesn't apply to federal agencies.

Keep in mind that the estimated annual purchases for medical cannabis in Ohio will help create upwards of 10,000 new jobs, and the funds paid in county and state sales taxes will pay for hundreds of city and state employees.
Limit on Patient's Purchase of Medical Cannabis to 60 Grams
Preventing the diversion of medical cannabis to the black-market and into the hands of those unauthorized to use it.

The Ohio Division of Liquor Control sets the minimum price of beer to reduce the possibilities of diversion. Beer could be sold for 10 cents a can, but that would encourage people to buy and resell for a profit. This would allow it to get into the hands of children. We do not wish to allow the Commission of Medical Cannabis to set the price of medical cannabis in Ohio. However, we understand the wisdom to control pricing as a means to help prevent diversion. This is another instance of uniformety of legeslation.

Patients will be allowed to posses up to 200 grams, roughly half a pound. If they could purchase that amount, they would rightly expect and get a dramatically reduced wholesale price.

In order to help prevent patients from arrest, legal entanglements and involvement with the black-market, this Amendment limits the amount allowed to be purchased by patients and their caretakers to 60 grams. It doesn't matter if a patient purchases 200 grams in one day from four different sources, but obviously, they will not receive a dramatically discounted wholesale price for their multiple purchases.
The Cultivation of Medical Cannabis in Ohio

All medical cannabis grown in Ohio must be kept in an enclosed and locked facility. An enclosed and locked facility means a room, building, greenhouse, or garden, equipped with locks and kept locked whenever the cardholder is away. Outdoor cultivation sites must also be screened to obstruct the view of cannabis plants from the outside at ground level.

Patients may grow up to 12 mature cannabis plants and are not required to obtain a commercial cultivation permit.

Mature cannabis plant means a cannabis plant that has undergone botanical sexual differentiation as shown by having flower buds that are readily observable by unaided visual examination with the excemption of perscription eyeware.

Immature cannabis plant means a cannabis plant that has not yet undergone botanical sexual differentiation and therefore not a mature cannabis plant.

Cannabis plants, useable cannabis, etc. shall not be shall not be seized or forfeited if possessed according to the rules of this Amendment and This Amendment shall not prevent the seizure or forfeiture of cannabis or cannabis plants which exceed the amounts allowed under this Amendment,
Commercial Cultivation Permits

Except for patients who grow their own, all medical cannabis cultivated in Ohio will be limited to those obtaining yearly permits from the Division.

Individuals, age twenty one years or older, free of any excluded felony convictions and holding a valid vendor's license, may apply for a yearly commercial cultivation permit.

If grown in an area zoned residential, the permit limits the grow to a maximum number of mature cannabis plants allowed by the sum of two patients. If grown in an area zoned for agriculture, commercial enterprises or industrial activities, the permit limits the grow to a maximum number of mature cannabis plants allowed the sum of eight patients.
Classification of Commercial Permits Issued by the Division

A Designated Cultivator: This is known in other states by the euphemism of caregiver. The fee for this permit will be double the cost of a driver's license () for each registered qualified patient the designated cultivator registers under their permit and up to a maximum of eight patients will be allowed. Designated Cultivator Permit Fee: from to 0, depending on the number of patients served.

A Medical Cannabis-Infused Product Manufacturer: These products include traditional tinctures, oils, lotions and edible products etc. These non-smoked products are extremely important to many patients.

This cultivation permit allows a maximum number of mature cannabis plants equal to the number allowed for eight patients.This permit also allows the holder to contract with another holder of a cultivation permit to obtain sufficient amounts of cannabis to manufacture their cannabis-infused products.

An applicant for this permit must have their manufacturing site inspected for cleanliness and sanitation by the applicant's local Department of Public Health and licensed by Department of Agriculture, depending upon the nature of the products being manufactured. A copy of the site inspection and the food preparation license is required for application.

Additional regulations require products be sealed and labeled with a list of all ingredients used in the manufacture and the label to clearly read, This Product Contains Medical Cannabis. These products are not exempt from sales taxes. Cultivation Permit Fee . Operation Permit Fee .

An Agricultural Cooperative: This state chartered, not-for-profit organization allows patients, caretakers and volunteers to work together. They can cultivate cannabis plants and distribute useable cannabis only to the registered qualified patient members of the cooperative. The organization shall not possess more useable cannabis nor cultivate more mature cannabis plants than allowed the sum of its patient membership. Cultivation Permit Fee . Operation Permit Fee .

A Scientific Research Laboratory: This permit holder tests cardholders' cannabis for purity, cannabinoid content, horticultural contaminants, etc. It also allows for the research and development of new and useful cultivars of cannabis and selling seeds, germplasm, cuttings and clones. This does not allow the sale of useable cannabis. This permit allows growing no more mature plants than allowed for eight patients.

The reason for creating a permit for the combination of testing cannabis and germplasm research is to encourage the capital investment in scientific equipment for testing, which would also be extraordinarily useful for the development of new and useful cultivars and to provide an addition income stream to help pay off the hefty expense of the scientific equipment. Cultivation Permit Fee . Operation Permit Fee .

A Safety Compliance and Educational Facility: This permit allows an organization to do any and all things allowed under this Amendment, including the use of medical cannabis by registered qualified patients for demonstration purposes on the grounds of the registered premises. Its goal is to provide the highest value and worth of an educational experience to cardholders, interested individuals and employees of the division and department. This cultivation permit allows the cultivation of no more mature cannabis plants than allowed eight patients. This permit does not allow the sale of useable cannabis.

Only seven permits in this class will be issued and locations will be spread around the state. Cultivation Permit Fee . Operational Permit Fee ,563

A Medical Cannabis Retail Establishment: The requirements to obtain these permits are extensive and there are a limited number of permits allowed. The application and the process for granting these permits are not easy. Applications will be reviewed, weighed and scored by the division, then turned over to the commission who will pick the best applicants for permits.

The cultivation permit follows the same rule required of vineyards by the Ohio Division of Liquor Control. The permit holder shall cultivate no less than sixty percent of the usable cannabis they dispense to patients and may obtain a maximum of forty percent of their usable cannabis by contracting with other cultivation permit holders.

A few regulations of note include: just like our state's liquor laws, the location of a retail establishment may not be within five hundred feet of a school, church, library or public playground; the types of signage and advertising have certain restrictions; security, safety and record keeping requirements are extensive; and all employees must be licensed and trained. There a lot of dos and don'ts.

The total number of permits initially granted will be 471 state-wide, roughly equal to and following the same formula for the number of State Agency Liquor Stores in Ohio. One is allowed in each county with an additional allowed in each county for each 30,000 citizens in that county. In practice, the total number will be less because nearly half the counties in Ohio do not have a population large enough to support a medical cannabis retail establishment.

Voters may ban a medical cannabis retail establishment using existing Local Option Laws as briefly described elsewhere in this document. Cultivation Permit Fee ,563. Operational Permit Fee ,563.
Contracts Between Permit Holders

Cultivation permit holders may sell useable cannabis, plants, infused products, etc. to other permit holders under specific regulations noted in this Amendment and under reporting rules to be established by the Commission. An excise fee of 1% shall be charged on each transaction conducted between permit holders and paid to the Division.

Commercial permit holders many also obtain additional permits from another class of permits. For example, a co-op may also obtain a cannabis-infused products manufacturing permit.

Pay Day Loan Complaints

Just in case you haven't heard yet, the number of people in the United States who are applying for pay day loans is increasing steadily, and that is particularly true over the past 6 years. It doesn't look like this trend is going to slow down any time soon. Some states have even enacted legislative regulations in an attempt to control the payday loan sector as a response to complaints that have been filled and allegations that some loan companies are engaging in loan shark activities.

When you take a look at the big picture, you will find that there is not an excessively high ratio of complaints in the cash advance loan industry at all. You will even find that one provider of instant loans reports that the incidence of customer complaints is under 4 percent. If you had a mind to, you could flip that around to have it say that there is a 96 percent customer satisfaction rate.

When it comes to the financial products industry, particularly pay day loan products, it is tempting to believe that the most common complaints from consumers would be about predatory lending practices, high interest rates and other types of issues, but you will get a different picture when you take a look at the actual complaints that have been filed.

Following are 3 typical types of complaints that have been filed against cash advance type loan providers.

1. According to research, the number one most common complaint about quick cash loan companies is that they make it simple to apply for a loan online and get approval instantly without also providing an easy way to increase the amount of payments on their websites. While this may seem like a trivial matter, it can be very serious for those consumers who have taken out a payday loan and wish to pay it off more quickly than the terms allow.

2. Late payment fees have to take second place here. Similar to credit card companies pay day loan companies charge a late fee of at least 15%, which can mean that you would be paying on a 0 payment if you were late one day. It seems that these late fees can add up to a significant amount of income for the payday loan industry.

3. Also a common complaint about pay day loan companies is that they do not offer 24-hour support for their customers. Since there is access to the sites where an individual can fill out an application on the payday loan website, there is not that 24-hour support from all providers if you need to contact customer service for assistance during other than normal office hours.

Taking the above into consideration, it is easy to see why so many more people are taking advantage of pay day loans when they need quick money.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Commercial Trucks and Safety - Use Backup Warning Devices and Save Lives!

Accidents related to commercial dump trucks commonly happen during the backing-up process. Hearing stories about people getting run over while they are backing is unfortunately not uncommon. The reasons for this happening are certainly varied. The sheer size of the vehicle alone is a big contributing factor. Even with the aid of side mirrors, there are areas to the rear of any car known as blind spots' that are not visible to the driver.

Human Error Factor

Human error is a big contributor to the problem. Ideally, a spotter should be stationed behind the truck to assist the driver when backing up. Unfortunately, on many occasions when accidents have happened, the drivers involved have disregarded the need for a spotter and relied only on their side-view mirrors. This common practice has proven to be dangerous and even fatal.

Available Safety Devices

When considering the issues regarding commercial truck safety, it is important and helpful to know that there are systems that can help improve safety during backing up procedures. Since it is apparent that spotters can be ignored, an alternative to consider are back-up warning devices that can be installed on the vehicle.

Three of the most common backup warning devices that can improve the safety of commercial dump trucks are: a back-up alarm, a back-up sensor and a back-up camera system.

Back-up alarm - A back-up alarm is basically an audible signaling device that is activated whenever the vehicle is put in reverse. The device creates a loud beeping sound set to around 100 decibels to make it audible despite any background noise. The signal is designed to alert anyone around the vehicle, warning them that the truck is backing up.

Anyone working behind the vehicle should then be able to hear the alarm and move away from the truck's path. This feature is standard equipment on most modern commercial vehicles. For models without this device, there are individually available backup alarm systems that can be purchased and installed.

Back-up Sensor - Another system that can improve the safety of a truck while backing up is a back-up sensor. The backup sensor is a device installed on the rear and when put in reverse gear, the sensor automatically monitors for any obstruction on the vehicle's rear end. If there is any object that is detected within the vehicle's path, an alarm located inside the cab automatically activates informing the driver about the obstacle.

Back-up Camera - On some trucks, instead of the conventional back-up sensor and/or alarm, they have a back-up camera system. These systems have a camera installed on the back end of the vehicle and a small LCD monitor in the cab. The camera can monitor everything that is behind the truck, feeding the driver a live image from the rear of the vehicle of anything or anyone that could affect a backing-up procedure.

Safety is always an issue that cannot be ignored. If your commercial dump trucks don't have any of these backup safety systems, now is the best time to have one installed. You can purchase any of these systems and install it to make your truck a safer vehicle.